Use the tar command to extract the files from the downloaded archive file:. If you don't want to have to remember all of the command line switches for extracting archives, I recommend getting one or both of these utilities: With either of these utilities, you just enter the name of the utility dtrx or deco and the filename, it it does all of the rest. Both of these "know" how to handle most any archive format that you are likely to run across and they have great error handling.
Porting UNIX/Linux Applications to OS X
When building from source, there are two common types of errors that you are likely to encounter:. After you've extracted the source code archive file, in the terminal, you should change to the directory that contains the extracted files. Typically, this directory name will be the same as the name of the file without the.
However, sometimes the directory name is just the name of the application, without any version information. Sometimes the file might have an an extension, such as. This is usually a shell script that runs some other utilities to confirm that you have a "sane" environment for compiling. In other words, it will check to ensure that you have everything installed that you need. If this is a Python-based application, instead of a config file, you should find a file named setup.
Python applications are typically very simple to install. To install this application, as root e. That should be all that you need to do. You can skip the remainder of this tutorial and proceed directly to using and enjoying your application. Run the configuration script in the terminal. Typically, you can and should! The script will display some messages to give you an idea of what it is doing. Often, the script will give you an indication of whether it succeeded or failed and, if it failed, some information about the cause of the failure. If you don't get any error messages, then you can usually assume that everything went fine.
If you don't find any script that looks like a configuration script, then it typically means that the application is a very simple one and it is platform independent. In this tutorial, I'm going to use the text-based RSS reader called Newsbeuter as an example for the types of errors that you may encounter when building your application. For Newsbeuter, the name of the configuration script is config. On my system, when I run config. Upon doing some research, I found that, in fact, the sqlite3 application was installed.
However, since I'm trying to build from source, this is a tip that what config. In Ubuntu, most packages have an associated development counterpart package that ends in -dev. Other platforms, such as Fedora, often use a package suffix of -devel for the development packages.
Building from Source Code on Linux and Mac OS X
To find the appropriate package for the sqlite3 development package, we can use the apt-cache utility in Ubuntu and, similarly, the yum utility in Fedora:. This command returns quite a big list of results, so we have to do a bit of detective work to determine which is the appropriate package. In this case, the appropriate package turns out to be libsqlite3-dev. Notice that sometimes the package we are looking for will have the lib prefix, instead of just the same package name plus -dev. This is because sometimes we are just looking for a shared library that may be used by many different applications.
To install libsqlite3-dev , run the typical apt-get install command in the terminal:.
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- Compiling on Linux and Mac OS X - Avogadro.
Now, we have to run config. While I won't show it here, in the case of Newsbeuter, I also had to install the libcurl4-openssl-dev package, as well. Also, if you install a development package like libsqlite3-dev and the associated application package e. When the configuration runs successfully, the result will be that it will create one or more make files.
If the build package includes sub-directories, such as src , etc. Now, we are ready to actually compile the application. This is often called building and the name is borrowed from the real-world process of constructing something. The various "pieces" of the application, which are typically multiple source code files, are combined together to form the overall application. The make utility manages the build process and calls other applications, such as the compiler and linker, to actually do the work.
In most cases, you simply run make with your regular user account from directory where you ran the configuration. In a few cases, such as compiling applications written with the Qt library, you will need to run another "wrapper" application like qmake instead. As with the configuration script above, when you run make or the similar utility in the terminal, it will display some messages about what is executing and any warnings and errors.
You can typically ignore warnings, as they are mainly for the developers of the application and are telling them that there are some standard practices that are being violated. Usually, these warnings do not affect the application function. On the other hand, compiler errors must be dealt with. With Newsbeuter, when I ran make, things went fine for a while, but then I got an error:. The make process will stop as soon as the first error is encountered. Handling compiler errors can sometimes be tricky business.
You have to look at the errors for some clues about the problem. Typically, the problem is that some header files, which usually have extension of. In the case of the error above, it is or should be! As this example shows, you want to look at the first lines of the error message and work your way down to find the underlying cause of the problem.
After looking at the Newsbeuter documentation which I should have done before I started, but then this part of the tutorial wouldn't be very meaningful! So what do we do in this case? Well, we essentially repeat this exact same process for that required library: For example, in the case of STFL, I had to install the libncursesw5-dev package for it to build properly.
Usually, it is not necessary to redo the configuration step on our original application after installing another required application, but it never hurts either. The make process typically picks up where it leaves off at the point of the error. Thus, any files that had already compiled successfully will not be recompiled.
If you want to recompile everything, you can run make clean all to remove any compiled objects and then run make again. After the build process completes successfully, you are ready to install the application. In most cases, to install the application to the common areas of the file system e. Installing is really the simplest step in the whole process.
To install, in the terminal run:. Check the output of this process for any errors. If everything was successful, you should be able to run the command name in the terminal and it will launch. When you build an application from source, it won't typically add an icon or shortcut to the GUI menus in Ubuntu. You will need to add this manually. And that is basically the process, albeit potentially iterative, to building and installing an application from source in Ubuntu. After you've done this just a few times, it'll become second nature to you! Unless you have a good reason, this is where you want your libraries.
You can have multiple versions installed, and software linked against an older version will stay linked against it run ldd to find out the binding on Linux , but new compiles generally target the latest version of a dynamic library on your system. Most software assumes dynamic libs, especially if it uses libtool, so you may find non-trivial apps don't build correctly statically.
And that's where I'm out of information; how to play well with packages: When possible, I try and wrap things up into a package to avoid the problem. That depends on the system. Again, depends on the system and the library. Library files usually version themselves though. Keep in mind however; since the versions often create symlinks to a "normalised" name this can break things. Using the --prefix parameters in. I'm by no means an expert, but I've been using linux for over 5yrs from the cmd line slackware, CentOS, redhat, ubuntu, misc others, and OS X.
The tools are OS Version dependant, ie they are not backwards compatible , to my knowledge in short, don't install XCode for Having installed XCode you now have a compiler, and can head on over to the MacPorts page and browse for the port you need installed, after installing the MacPorts.
Linked 1. The libSystem library also includes functions that you would normally expect to find in libc and libm , RPC services, and a name resolver. For your convenience, many of these libraries exist as symbolic links to libSystem , so while explicitly linking against -lm for example is not needed, it will not cause an error. To learn more about how to use dynamic libraries, see Dynamic Library Programming Topics.
For the most part, you can treat dynamic libraries and plugins the same way as on any other platform if you use GNU libtool.
For more information, see the manual page for glibtool. You can also create dynamic libraries and plugins manually if desired. Thus, you must pass different flags when you create them. Because plugins can be tailored to a particular application, the OS X compiler provides the ability to check these plugins for loadability at compile time.
If the compiler finds symbol requests in the plugin that cannot be resolved in the application, you will get a link error. This means that you must use the -l flag to link against any libraries that the plugin requires as though you were building a complete executable. To learn more about how to create and use dynamic libraries, see Dynamic Library Programming Topics.
In the OS X file system, some directories store executable code and the software resources related to that code in one discrete package. These packages, known as bundles, come in two varieties: There are two basic types of bundles that you should be familiar with during the basic porting process: In particular, you should be aware of how to use frameworks, since you may need to link against the contents of a framework when porting your application.
macos - Compiling/Using a Linux source on Mac OS X - Super User
Application bundles are special directories that appear in the Finder as a single entity. Having only one item allows a user to double-click it to get the application with all of its supporting resources. If you are building Mac apps, you should make application bundles.
Xcode builds them by default if you select one of the application project types. More information on application bundles is available in Bundles vs. Installers and in Mac Technology Overview. A framework is a type of bundle that packages a shared library with the resources that the library requires. Depending on the library, this bundle could include header files, images, and reference documentation. If you are trying to maintain cross-platform compatibility, you may not want to create your own frameworks, but you should be aware of them because you might need to link against them.
For example, you might want to link against the Core Foundation framework. A more thorough discussion of frameworks is in Mac Technology Overview. You can find additional information about bundles in Mac Technology Overview. A multiply defined symbol error occurs if there are multiple definitions for any symbol in the object files that you are linking together.
You can specify the following flags to modify the handling of multiply defined symbols under certain circumstances:. The values for treatment must be one of:. An unused multiply defined symbol is a symbol defined in the output that is also defined in one of the dynamic libraries, but in which but the symbol in the dynamic library is not used by any reference in the output.
The values for treatment must be error , warning , or suppress. The default for unused multiply defined symbols is to suppress these messages. This macro is defined when your code is being compiled by the Objective-C compiler. By default, this occurs when compiling a. You can force the Objective-C compiler to be used for a.
This macro is defined on systems that use natural alignment. When using natural alignment, an int is aligned on sizeof int boundary, a short int is aligned on sizeof short boundary, and so on. It is defined by default when you're compiling code for PowerPC architecutres. It is not defined when you use the -malign-mac68k compiler switch, nor is it defined on Intel architectures.
This macro is set to an integer that represents the version number of the compiler. This lets you distinguish, for example, between compilers based on the same version of GCC, but with different bug fixes or features. Larger values denote later compilers. These macros tell whether the current architecture uses little endian or big endian byte ordering.
This file does not exist in OS X, but the functionality does exist. You should include stdlib. Alternatively, you can define the prototypes yourself as follows:. The ftw function traverses through the directory hierarchy and calls a function to get information about each file. However, there isn't a function similar to ftw in fts. Alternatively, you can use opendir , readdir and closedir with recursion to achieve the same result. See the manual page for fts to understand the structures and macros used in the code.
The sample code above shows a very simplistic file traversal. For instance, it does not consider possible subdirectories existing in the directory being searched. In OS X, you can use mmap to map files into memory. The modules themselves must be compiled against the Kernel framework. For more information, see IOKit Fundamentals. The implementation of pseudo-TTYs is very different from Linux. For more information, see the pty manual page. OS X does not support this header file.
You can use the header file swap. The swap. This header file is obsolete, and has been replaced by termios. These two header files are very similar. However, the termios. Thus, you should be sure to look directly at the termios. These functions gives access to localized strings.
There is no direct equivalent in OS X. Additional code has been added to deter key search attempts. OS X's version of the function crypt behaves very similarly to the Linux version, except that it encrypts a bit constant rather than a bit constant. This function is located in the unistd. You can either use this code to implement this functionality, or you can use any of the existing APIs in time.
Discouraged in OS X.
Use sprintf , snprintf , and similar functions instead. This function is an extension to fclose. Although OS X supports fclose , fcloseall is not supported. You can use fclose to implement fcloseall by storing the file pointers in an array and iterating through the array.
However, to the extent that they are, you can get similar functionality from getfsent and related functions. The brk and sbrk functions are historical curiosities left over from earlier days before the advent of virtual memory management. Although they are present on the system, they are not recommended. This API is supported but is not recommended. When several applications use shmget , this limit may change and cause problems for the other applications. The chapter Designing Scripts for Cross-Platform Deployment in Shell Scripting Primer describes a number of cross-platform compatibility issues that you may run into with command-line utilities that are commonly scripted.
This section lists several commands that are primarily of interest to people porting compiled applications and drivers, rather than general-purpose scripting.